Industrial Ecology


CO2 and Climate Change


Climate change is one of the pressing issues faced by the world today. It is caused by the increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, among which is carbon dioxide (CO2). 


The cement industry is a contributor to CO emissions.  In the process of cement manufacturing, CO emissions come from the decarbonation of raw materials and the combustion of fossil fuels. 


As a Group, Lafarge has taken proactive approach in handling the issue of climate change by initiating the Cement Sustainability Initiative, a chapter under the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.  Lafarge has also established a partnership with the World Wildlife Fund and has made a commitment to reduce its CO2  emission by 20% per tonne of cement over the period of 1990-2010.

How We Fulfil Our Commitment


In order to reduce our emissions and fulfil our commitment, we have taken a three-pronged approach:


  • Reducing the calorific consumption of our kilns
  • Implementing resource recovery activities
  • Developing the use of cementitious materials in subsitution of clinker in cement


The sustainability of natural ecosystems comes from their equilibrium with optimum consumption of material and resources that are constantly recycled.  Industrial ecology applies these principles to human activity, making the most efficient possible use of by-products and waste.


The recovery and reuse of by-products is a well-established practice in the cement industry.  While Lafarge fully embraces this idea and uses waste of other industries as alternative fuels, we observe stringent criteria when it comes to using any waste material at any of our plants.  The waste materials must:


  • Be safe for our employees
  • Be environmentally safe for the communities
  • Be free from any adverse effect on the quality of our clinker
  • Comply with all Malaysian laws


At Lafarge Malaysia, our cement kilns are used for the disposal of various types of wastes, including scheduled wastes.  It provides an economic advantage to the industries we serve as well as protecting the environment and conserving the non-renewable resources.


We have a team who is dedicated to deliver service and waste management solutions to a steadily growing range of industrial customers.



CO2 and Cement

Why does the manufacture of cement produce CO2?


Cement manufacturing is the source of 5% of global CO2 emissions. The cement industry is a natural producer of CO2:

  • 60% of emissions are due to the transformation of raw materials at high temperatures (the "decarbonation" of limestone),
  • 40% result from the combustion required to heat the cement kilns to 1500°C.

Pulverised Fuel Ash

Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA) is hydrophilic and can be used as a cementitious additive. The ash, which is collected from chimney filters in coal-fired power plants, is composed of vitreous silica, alumina, iron oxide and lime.

They can be used as a partial substitute for clinker and thus help to reduce CO2 emissions.


Last update on 06/09/2017